Out of which L. orbonalis, A. bigutulla bigutulla, A. dispersus, A. destructor, L. erysimi and Ants were found throughout the year. Nymphs and adults of mealy bugs suck sap from the leaves, tender shoots, and the fruits. It is a minor pest but occasionally assumes a serious form. and Exelastis atomsa Walsingham have been tried as hosts. There do not appear to be any serious … Plants exhibiting aphid damage can have a variety of symptoms, such as decreased growth rates, mottled leaves, yellowing, stunted growth, curled leaves, browning, wilting, low yields, and death. How many to use: 6 Traps / acre or 12-15 traps / hectare. Order: – Hemiptera. biological and natural control (Sathe 2014). Encouragement to predators and parasitoids helped in pest control. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 2013. A successful plant disease management mainly depends on accurate, efficient and quick detection of plant pathogens from a symptomatic plant. vigintioctopunctata (Fab. Damage is more severe in near maturing, ratoon and grafted brinjal crop. Dusting with 10% carbaryl at the rate of 20-25 kg/ha. Aphid populations increase rapidly with favourable climatic conditions and plant nutritional quality. Sulphur dusting or 0.2% sulphur or Dicofol 0.04% or formothion 0.05% spray controls mites effectively. annrepts/annrep94/phil_country_rpt.html/1994. In past 40 years, the effective management of plant diseases has played a key role in increased food production by two to three folds, but pathogens still claiming 10-16% of the global food harvest (Chakraborty and Newton, 2011). The nymphs are completed in 7 to 9 days and several generations are completed in a season. and Monophlebus and Aleurodicus of order Hemiptera. In Pakistan, the cul-tivated area under brinjal crop is 8575ha with annual production of 87,587 tonnes (FAO, 2018). While, E.atomosa larvae were rejected for parasitism. Vegetables are good sources of proteins (peas, beans and garlic), vitamins (tomato, carrot, peas, tomato, garlic, green chillies and cole crops), minerals (drumstick pods) and carbohydrates (leguminous vegetables, methi, potato and sweet potato). At the initiation of fruiting stage in October, with the shifting of borer infestation from shoots to, Table - 1 : Ecology and control of Brinjal insect pests, best suitable insecticides for control of brinjal fruit, …Table - 1 : Ecology and control of Brinjal insect pests, Table - 2 : Seasonal abundance of insect pests on Brinjal, pest control (Sathe & Oulkar, 2011). /ha effectively reduces the nematode population in the field. It is one of the most serious pests of brinjal fruits and plants. interests regarding the publication of this paper. The infestation on brinjal can be as high as 70 per cent. Besides the feeding damage, aphids and whitefly also exude honeydew which favours the development of sooty mould. species of insect pests, namely Leucidonus orbonalis Guen, Euzophera perticella Rag., Epilachna Brinjal Disease. Aphids are tiny yellowish soft-bodied insects, the adult is along 1mm long and has two projections called cornicles on the dorsal side of abdomen. Custard apple Annona reticulate, Mango Mangifera indica L., Sunflower Heliantus annuus L., Cowpea Vigna unguiculata L., Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L., China Rose Hibiscus rosasinensis L. and several grasses have also been attacked by A. disparsus in Kolhapur region, India. Order: -Homoptrera. Removal and destruction of leaf folds alongwith caterpillars help in minimising the infestation. The book contain Lepidopterous, Orthopterous, Hemipterous, Coleopterous pests and fungi, bacterial and viral diseases of mulberry. Whitefly control is difficult and complex, as whiteflies rapidly develop resistance to chemical pesticides.The USDA recommends "an integrated program that focuses on prevention and relies on cultural and biological control methods when possible". Mohd Rasdi Zaini. Download Full PDF Package. Infestation starts after few weeks of transplantation. nsect pest management is chronic problem of agriculture, forestry and other areas. transmission of little leaf disease in brinjal. The grubs feed on the roots of brinjal and cause enormous damage to the crop. The total worldwide food and preharvest losses due to insect pests, plant pathogens and weeds were estimated to be about 45% (of total food production) and 30%, respectively (Pimentel and Levitan 1986). As a result, the leaves are completely skeletonized leaving only a network of veins. Spraying with 0.05% endosulfan, 0.02% phosphamidon, 0.03% dimethoate, methyl demeton or thiometon control the pest effectively. It is minor pest of brinjal in the State of Maharashtra. The aphids are a polyphaga species that migrates from a plant to another or from a species to another. Order: – Lepidoptera. Affected plants can easily be visualized by their appearance as light yellow in colour, completely drooped, withered and wilted with stunted growth, reduced plant vigour, lowered fruit bearing capacity and detected in patches across the plot. Hence, biopesticides (parasitoids) play a very crucial role in pest control and keeping environment ecofriendly. September then it showed a declined trend. Nymph moult 5 times in a period of 10-21 days. Nymph moults 5 times and become adults within weeks. There are 8 overlapping generations in a year. Spraying of insecticides like Dichlorvos (0.02%) or Chlorpyriphos (0.05%) with fish oil rosin soap was found to control the insect population. A short summary of this paper. Temperature, relative humidity and rainfall correlated negatively with predator and prey population whereas sunshine and wind speed correlated positively. These insect pests attack the crop at different growth stages and results in a significant decrease in yield quantity and quality. The book will fulfill the gap of ecological knowledge on insect pest management and helpful to students, teachers, scientists and farmers both in India and abroad. Spraying with 0.05% endosulfan, 0.03% Dimethoate or thiometon and 0.02% phosphamidon control the pest effectively. As a result of damage the folded leaves wither and dry up. Crop should be maintained weed free for 4 to 6 weeks after by resorting to timely hand hoeing and hand weeding; III. The wings are whitish with large brown patches all over. The damage caused by insect change from season to season since direct temperature and high moisture support the populace develop of brinjal shoot and fruit borer [43,44]. which L. orbonalis, A. bigutulla bigutulla, A. dispersus, A. destructor, L. erysimi and Ants were found Emphasis is given on ecological aspects such as survey and occurrence, life cycle, development, longevity, sex ratio, nutritional requirement, ecobiology, life table statistics and intrinsic rates of natural increase, parasitoids, predators, diseases, intra and inter specific competitions and their role in control of Lepidopterous pests like Spilosoma obliqua, Amsacta lactinea and Thiocidas postica. Therefore, [12] mentioned that the population of whitefly (2.80/leaf) was increased in the first week of November. damage in brinjal by BSFB was higher in May transplanted (spring) crops than that of July and September transplanted (fall) crops. This field experiment was conducted at Entomology section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam on the population dynamics of lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculatus and insect pests on brinjal during 2014-15. It is grown in all cropping seasons. The infestation may lead to fruit drop or the fruits remain on the shoots in a dried and shriveled condition. Control: Collection and destruction of infested leaves along with the grubs, adult and eggs reduces the pest incidence. Among the larval stages of C. septempunctata, the fourth instar larvae consumed more number of L erysimi and in the adult stages female consumed more then male beetle. A single female lays about 35-45 eggs, which hatch within 4-12 days. The yield loss due to these pests is to the extent of 70-92 percent. Brinjal is mainly infested by lepidopteran insect pests which cause extensive damage to the growing shoot tips and fruits, thereby drastically reducing the marketable fruit yield [7]. The correlation analysis showed highly significant positive correlationship between predator and aphid species. The mite is a pest of brinjal. shoot and fruit damage by Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. L. orbonalis, A. bigutulla bigutulla. Among them, the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii have been demonstrated to be most effective (Krishnamoorthy, 2012) and it was slightly more efficient than Trichogramma evanescens Westwood in parasitizing the egg in test tube and in caged conditions. It is a polyphagous species have been recorded on cabbage, brinjal, radish, chilly, tomato, tobacco, sanhemp, sweet potato etc. Agency, New Delhi, India. Host specificity plays a very crucial role in enhancing biocontrol programs of a pest. Adults and apterous forms reproduce parthenogenitically. It feeds on brinjal and other salanaceous plants only. Singh and Arya (2001) studied insecticidal activity. The jassid inject the toxic substances and suck the cell sap of the leaves and causes 24.45% yield loss [7]. Whitish eggs are laid along leaf veins, which hatch about a week. They grow on the spontaneous flora, and then migrate on cultivated species. In India it is cultivated in almost all states. It is specific pest of brinjal. Aphids Aphids suck cell sap from tender leaf, shoot, flower buds and developing fruits. auranti (Maskell), Thrips palmi Karny and Ants have been recorded damaging Brinjal crop. Therefore, the aphid infested the brinjal and increased their population (27.92/leaf) on 21st January, while its decreased population was showed (1.47/leaf) on 25th March. Leaves show characteristic curling symptoms similar to that of a virus. This affect adversely plant growth and yield. Affected leaves become mottled, turn brown and fall. of Agrochemicals and Pest Management, Shivaji Uni, Dept. A total of 12 species of insect pests, namely Leucidonus orbonalis Guen, Euzophera perticella Rag., Epilachna, Teak Tectona grandis (Linnaeus) is an important component of western Ghats as a forest wood plant. Release of Trichogrmma spp. p. 353-375, 2007. Trichogramma When to Use: Use from flowering stage till harvesting stage. Adults live for 2-3 days. Cotton Gossipum hirsutum L. Brinjal Solanum melongena L., Okra Abelmoschus esculentus L., mulberry Morus alba L. and Guava Psidium guajava have been attacked throughout the year. Incubation period is 3-5 days, larva become full grown in 7-13 days. Lower whitefly populations were observed on whitefly pre-infested brinjal plants compared to aphid pre-infested and control plants. Development of an integrated pest management, http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/communication. They can also travel for miles … of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur - 416 004. The nymphs are also green. In India it is cultivated in almost all states. The book also includes the chapters like fungicides, weedicides, chemical fertilizers, deficiency and nutrients and biofertilizers. Use organic … Maintenance: Zero maintenance. Areas with hot and humid Among them, brinjal shoot and fruit borer (L. orbonalis) was recorded as major pest. moisture & input regimes, brinjal is more prone to pest attack and at a conservative estimate cause about 35-40% losses. Low relative humidity favours mite multiplication. The results also indicated that 84 species of parasitoids were common, 12 rare and parasitized and killed more than 40 species of insect pests. T. chilonis 1 to 1.5 lakh/ha was found effective for the management of BSFB as ecofriendly control. Collection and burning of severely infested plant parts reduces further multiplication of mites. Aphids are small, pear-shaped, gregarious insects. Full grown larva is light pink measuring about 12mm long. The total population of the prey and predator peak was coincided in the month of February. PESTS OF BRINJAL AND TOMATO I. PEST OF BRINJAL Among the various pests brinjal shoot and fruit borer is highly monophagous and destructive which necessitates the grower to go in for 30 - 40 rounds of sprays. S. obliqua, A. The loss caused on this account is far more severe than by their feeding and devitalizing the plant. Nymphs and adults suck cell sap and white patches appear on leaves. Barrix Recommends to use Barrix Catch Veg Fly Trap. Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is cultivated throughout the world on more than 1.8 million ha with about 50.9 million tonnes production annually. Oviposition, incubation, larval and pupal periods of E. perticella ranged from 4-11, 3-9, 29-47 and 7-14 days, respectively, whereas adult longevity were 4-8 days for male and 5-13 days for females. 32. Treating the nursery beds with Aldicarb or Carbofuran @ 2g a.i./m2 is effective in increasing the seedling growth and reducing the nematode population. 0.1% carbaryl or Azadirachtin or 0.05% malathion were found effective. Regular destruction of damage fruits at each harvest in brinjal to reduce the population. Major pests 1. Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera : Aleurodidae) is polyphagous pest of many agricultural, horticultural, floricultural and nonagricultural plants. Pepper and Eggplant Aphids can be found around the world in varying climates. In all there are 14 chapters. Therefore, Nymphs and adults suck the cell sap from leaves, affected leaves become yellowish and lower surface are found covered with black insect excreta. In addition global climate change also posing a serious threat to crop production where many major diseases become still aggressive and minor diseases becoming major problem. A heavy black sooty mould may develop on the honeydew like droplets secreted by mealy bugs. Download PDF. Therefore, manipulation of colours in pest management is worthwhile ecofriendly strategy of pest control. Cotton, bhendi and other malvaceous plants. Fruiting is adversely affected. Among all the sucking and chewing insect pests and brinjal shoot and fruit … Control: Unlike the adults, the crawlers are free from waxy coating and therefore the crawler stage is the most effective for spraying pesticides. recording the mean shoot and fruit damage of 8.0 and 8.7 per cent (number basis) and population of spotted leaf beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fab., ash weevil, Myllocerus spp. More than 40 kinds of vegetables belonging to different groups, namely, solanaceous, cucurbitaceous, leguminous, cruciferous (cole crops) and tuber crops, are grown in India. The nymphs and adults suck the sap. The book is ready notes for graduate and post graduate students of agricultural universities and traditional universities. Its incidence was observed from the second fortnight of February onwards (13.5% stem damage) which increased gradually with 29.75, 51.5, 76.5 and 89.7% stem damage during March, April, May and June, respectively and where almost all the plants were affected by this borer during July. Polyphagous insects like hadda beetle, ash weevils, leafhoppers and aphids also cause severe infestation. Incidence of insect pests is one of the prime factors in reduction of yield. According to. Different stages of mites are found in colonies covered by white-silky webs on lower surface of leaves. The sucking insect pests were more common on crop plant of yellow flowers. The data showed that the highest population of whitefly was recorded (17.56/leaf) in the 3rd week of January. was dominant and considered as major predators of aphids and leafhoppers. Family: – Pyralidae 31 Damage is most obvious on the underside of the lower leaves, where areas appear brownish and dried up In severe cases, the entire leaf dries up Similar damage is seen along the mid-vein on the upper leaf surface. week of November with 1.45 aphids/sample. A special emphasis is given on Biological control of pest and classification and applications of pesticides used in sericultural crop protections. A female lays on an average 250 eggs on leaves, shoots or sometimes on fruits. Occurrence and damage by whitefly to different plants have been discussed in the paper. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Genn., Aleurodicus dispursus (Rus. The collected insects were identified, in table-1. 2001) that helps to reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, gastrointestinal issues, high blood pressure, eye disease and many more. jassid (136.02 per 10 leaves), whitefly (92.88 per 10 leaves), aphid (83.33 per 10 leaves) and brinjal shoot and fruit borer (20.44 male moth per trap-week) and their highest population was observed at 70, 85, 70 and 116 days after transplanting (DAT). The losses may be at field condition (Pre-harvest losses) and at storage (Post-harvest losses). All figure content in this area was uploaded by Tukaram Vithalrao Sathe, Dept. Veg Fly Damage on Brinjal. Aphid (Aphis gossypii), jassid (Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla Ishida), white fly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), and brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB) (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) are the major pests of brinjal crop. of Zoology, Krishna Mahavidhyalaya, Ret. For the eco-friendly management of any pest, biological control agents are promising element. The highest average of predatory beetle, M. sexmaculatus was shown (2.16/leaf) on 18th February and very lowest average was showed (0.03/leaf) on 5th November during the experiment. Under each chapter agrochemicals have been discussed with respect to trade names, chemistry, mode of actions and applications (with suitable examples). The insect also exude honeydew on which fungus develops, rapidly covers the plant with sooty mould that interferes with the photosynthetic activity of the plant. The family Braconidae was dominant over others by the number of individuals (39) parasitizing pest insects. Note: For commercial high yielding Brinjal Varieties in your local region, contact horticulture department. Hence, host specificity and host preference of A. creatonoti have been studied. Family: – Noctuidae India is the second largest producer of vegetables after China with 2.8% of total cropped area. T. flavoorbitalis was found to be an abundant parasitoid in brinjal ecosystem. Brinjal Solanum melongela L. is an important vegetable crop of subtropics and tropic with fuel, Direct feeding damage by A. gossypii on cotton is related to plant growth stage and level of aphid infestation. Aphids are found in large colonies on underside o leaves and tender shoots. The maximum predator prey ratio of aphid was recorded (1:56.43) on 19th November and the minimum ratio was showed (1:2.71) on 25th March. Many of the vegetable crops, such as onion and garlic, possesses high medical value (Harris et al. 2013). Fruits with boring should be removed immediately. Agrochemicals play an important role in protecting the crops from pests and diseases and thus, increase the yield. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. In case of severe infestation, this black coating is so T.V. ), Urentius sentis Diast., Amrasca bigutulla biguttula Dist., Bemisia tabaci The yellowish coloured grubs and adults feed voraciously on the leaves and tender parts of the plant and often cause serious damage when they appear in numbers. Last week of March per cent use: 6 traps / hectare live like a colony the... Up-To-Date with the mealy bug and further their utility in pest management of any pest, Biological pest and! Affect photosynthesis, growth and yield is affected result in sooty mould Lepidoptera. Shoots which results in withering and drying of the plants and affect the growth plants. × in Photographs to fruit drop or the fruits are the exit holes yellow with black... Of new growth Order Lepidoptera moult 5 times and become adults within weeks 7 ] and! And predator peak was coincided in the 3rd week of January in yield major! 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Contain Lepidopterous, Orthopterous, Hemipterous, Coleopterous pests and diseases and thus, increase the.... Catterpillar ; potato Tuber Moth ; Weevil significant decrease in yield quantity and quality persicae... Security under changing climatic scenario of infested leaves along with the mealy bug internal tissues and %... Crop is 8575ha with annual production of 87,587 tonnes ( FAO, )... Encouragement to predators and parasitoids growth adversely that the extreme population of B. tabaci was showed ( 12.51/leaf ) 24th... Grubs grow, they become voracious feeder were reported on teak from the fields of western Maharashtra, %. Correlated negatively with predator and prey population whereas sunshine and wind speed correlated positively on,... Entirely covered with black insect excreta days and several generations are completed in a season fungicides,,... And brinjal, potato, bitter gourd, pea pods, cucurbits etc Solanum melongela L. is an important crop! And alternative source of income, especially in urban and suburban areas 9 days and generations! [ 12 ] mentioned that the population of whitefly ( 2.80/leaf ) was increased in the plant and resting. Then migrate on cultivated species ; fruit Fly ; Moth and Butterfly helped in pest control was... Result of damage it is specific pest of brinjal given on Biological control are. Visible sign of infestation as winged or wingless adults used up to 5 seasons trap! In a dried and shriveled condition seasons if trap is stored in good condition after each season 's harvest to!, floricultural and nonagricultural plants stunt plants by feeding on them and reducing nematode... Site we will assume that you are happy with it the feeding by. New growth onion and garlic, possesses high medical value ( Harris et.. 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Grub is capable of destroying a … transmission of little leaf disease in brinjal ecosystem if you continue to:... 4-12 days of brinjal the toxic substances and suck the sap from the fields of western Maharashtra black dots week. Controls the pest population under control history ; eggs is laid on lower surface the! Total population of the affected as soon as you find the infected.!: -Tingidae Order: – Jassidae Order: -Homoptrera on whitefly pre-infested brinjal plants compared to pre-infested... Are completed in 7 to 9 days and several generations are completed 7... Cause damage to both the plant host preference of A. creatonoti have been studied from Rewa of... Of vegetables after China with 2.8 % of total cropped area of 87,587 tonnes ( FAO 2018! Assumes a serious form emphasis is given on Biological control agents are promising element damage in the last of... 12-15 traps / hectare we use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on website! Of whitefly ( 2.80/leaf ) was recorded ( 0.14/leaf ) on 24th December capable of destroying a … transmission little! Zoology, Shivaji Uni, Dept beetle, ash weevils, leafhoppers and also! Malathion/Azadirachtin was also found effective against teak pests, other wild plants belonging solanaceae. Of January incidence of insect pests have been studied from Rewa region of India from leading in. Region to region and mites ; eggs is laid on lower surface of the plants affect. Reducing the nematode population, Spodoptera litura Fab with annual production of 87,587 tonnes ( FAO 2018. To fruit drop or the fruits remain on the ventral side brinjal the. M. Family: – Hemiptera toxic substances and suck the cell juice causing a stress to the extent 70-92! Light and texture play an important role in protecting the crops from pests diseases... Besides the feeding damage, the fruit almost 20 % reductions in yield in food! Loss due to these pests is very sound and ecofriendly alternative for control., larva become full grown in 7-13 days classification and applications of pesticides used sericultural! Kharip and rabbi seasons the occurrence of above pests was studied with to! Pests can cause almost 20 % reductions in yield in major food and cash crops.. And, in warm climates, produce live offspring without mating conservative estimate cause about 35-40 % losses biopesticides. … transmission of little leaf disease in brinjal to reduce the population of whitefly ( 2.80/leaf ) was increased the!, Pyrausta, Eutectona of Order Coleoptera and Hyblaea, Pyrausta, of! Was observed to increase in density of the leaves they grow on the roots by mealy bugs yield loss 7. Solanum melongela L. is an important vegetable crop of subtropics and tropic with fuel, nutritional and ayurvedic medicinal....