the venom composition of the P. motoro stingray that can easily injure humans, providing information required for the development of safety and treatment measures. The stingray is notable in that it stores its venom within tissue cells. In the present study, we performed the first comparison of venom toxicity and composition in two different maturity stages of the freshwater stingray P. leopoldi. 2014; 109 :188–198. 9 Additionally, the venom causes local vasoconstriction and ischemia, which can contribute to delayed wound healing as well. The sting is used for self-defense. The ray's body is flattened, with a long tail tipped with a stinger that is barbed, like a harpoon. Protein annotation was underpinned by a venom gland transcriptome. The toxins in the venom of young stingrays cause extreme pain and inflammation, while those in adult venom usually cause tissue necrosis, according to a group of pharmacologists led by Carla Lima and Mônica Lopes Ferreira, from the Butantan Institute. J. The Xingu River ray, white-blotched river stingray, or polka-dot stingray (Potamotrygon leopoldi) is a species of freshwater fish in the family Potamotrygonidae.It is endemic to the Xingu River basin in Brazil and prefers rocky bottoms. proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb 510 tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii), J. Proteomics. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) J. Proteomics. (Original Article) by "Advances in Environmental Biology"; Environmental issues Allergic reaction Complications and side effects Allergy Antibacterial agents Arrhythmia Bismuth subsalicylate Bites and stings Coasts Pregnant women Accidents Rivers Staphylococcus aureus infections Stings (Injuries) Sulfonamides Cardiotoxic effects have been demonstrated in humans and experimental animals, but stingray venom does not have anticoagulant, hemolytic, or neuromuscular-blocking properties. Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. The results of this study indicate that (1) juvenile present higher toxicity than mature specimens and (2) venom composition does not change during maturation. They are close relatives of sharks, and also have a cartilaginous skeleton. A ray of venom: combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii). Stingray venom can cause significant tissue necrosis, which can lead to delayed wound healing. Southern stingray is a non-aggressive animal, posing little threat to humans. Free Online Library: Stingray poisoning, a careless aspect in Mexico. Its teeth are used to crack shells of prey. The stingray belongs to the superorder of cartilaginous fish, commonly known as rays and skates. A stingray's mouth is on the underside of its flat body, so that it can feed on worms, crustaceans and other creatures on the seafloor. Stingray venom changes as the fish mature. Due to the almost complete lack of information about freshwater stingray venoms, a transcriptomic character - ization analysis could be a good strategy in order to elucidate components of the stingray venom mixtures, since Figure 1. It uses its whip-like tail to stab the stinger into predators. It is sometimes kept in aquaria. Also, recently, the venom gland transcriptome of a marine stingray, Neotrygon kuhlii, was generated8. Stingray venom systemic effects are associated with viscus penetration, and rarely, if ever, occur in those with peripheral stingray injuries only. The environment in which stingray injuries oc- J Proteomics. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) https://bcachemistry.wordpress.com/2014/05/28/chemistry-of- Authors. to venom and increases the risk of subsequent wound infection. A study at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, revealed that the freshwater stingray venom changes according to sex and age. Here we performed a detailed transcriptomic characterization of the venom gland of the South American freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro. Characterization of a new bioactive peptide from Potamotrygon gr. When the bee stings, the venom is mixed with water, so the actual composition of the substance it injects into you is around 88% water and 12% venom. CAS Article PubMed Google Scholar Conceição K. et al. Besides the regulatory processes discussed above, another posttranscriptional mechanism identified as being responsible for, or contributing to, variation in venom composition, is miRNAs. “We set out to discover whether the stage of development and gender of Potamotrygon rex, a freshwater stingray found in rivers throughout South America, influences the composition of its venom and its capacity to trigger an acute inflammatory response using mice as a model.Our results suggest that nociception is induced mainly by the toxins produced by young females,” Lima said. Baumann K. et al. A ray of venom: combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii). After excision of necrotic tissue, the wounds healed rapidly and without com … We analysed the protein extract using 1D and 2D gels with LC–MS/MS sequencing. A study by the FAPESP-funded Research, Innovation and Dissemination Center shows that toxins produced by young female stingrays cause more pain, whereas toxins … Peptides 30, 2191–9 (2009). Stingray venom is unique in its enzymatic composition and results in distinct soft tissue injury patterns. All these perspectives are merged in my PhD studies on stingray venom’s evolutionary background, bioactivity, intra- and interspecific variability in composition, and even potential applicability in pharmacology. The main toxic component of bee venom, also referred to as apitoxin, is melittin. Freshwater stingray venom varies according to sex and age June 05, 2019. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii). processes Article A New Group II Phospholipase A2 from Walterinnesia aegyptia Venom with Antimicrobial, Antifungal, and Cytotoxic Potential Islem Abid 1, Ikram Jemel 2, Mona Alonazi 3 and Abir Ben Bacha 2,3,* 1 Botany and Microbiology Department, Science College, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia; iabid@ksu.edu.sa 2014;109:188–98. From this point onward, we’ll consider the percentages of compounds purely in the venom itself. miRNA represents a class of small (∼22 nt) noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression by degrading their target mRNA and/or inhibiting their translation (Ambros 2004). 60. J Proteomics. 10 There have been reports of chronic wounds secondary to stingray injuries. 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